Fundamentals of Modern Substation Equipment, Protection and Controls

Online /
Oct 21 - 25, 2024 /
Course Code: 15-1013-ONL24

The confirmation of this course depends on early registration; Register early to avoid the postponement or cancellation of a course.
  • Overview
  • Syllabus
  • Instructor


Please note, This instructor-led course has specific dates and times:
This course is held online over 5 days on the following schedule (All times in Eastern Time Zone):

10:00 am to 6:00 pm Eastern (Will include the usual breaks)

Please note that it is a requirement for all attendees to sign a "Confidentiality Agreement" prior to receiving the course notes for this online offering.

After participating in this course, you will be able to:

  • Apply a clear understanding of the need to use power conditioning equipment at your substations
  • Assess the modern substation system, equipment, protection and automation
  • Benefit from your knowledge of how substation equipment operates
  • Read and relate single-line drawings and electrical schematics to substation equipment protection and control system
  • Recognize the latest technology in electrical substations

Knowledge of state-of-the-art substation equipment, protection and controls is a prerequisite to making decisions in the design, construction and operation of high and medium-voltage substations. This practical course covers medium and high voltage substations, including industrial, utility, commercial and institutional and introduces you to the up-to-date equipment that makes up an electric substation. Learn how each type of equipment operates and protection and control equipment and systems that determine successful and safe substation operation.

You will also learn practical aspects of the design, construction and operation of power transformers, voltage regulators, power circuit breakers, circuit switchers and capacitor banks.

Course Outline:

  • Grounding and bonding of electrical equipment
  • LV and MV system grounding
  • Modern substation types and purposes
  • Power transformers and controls
  • Bus and disconnect switches
  • Power circuit breakers
  • Metal-clad switchgear
  • Power conditioning systems
  • Power capacitor and capacitor banks
  • Substation commissioning
  • Fundamentals of power system protective relaying systems
  • Current transformers and voltage transformers
  • Coordination of protection systems
  • Protective relaying systems

Who Should Attend:
Electrical and Design Engineers • Industrial, Utility or Plant Engineers, • Engineering Technicians • Planning and Operations Specialists • Consulting Engineers • Electrical Project and Construction Managers • Electrical Managers

More Information

Time: 10:00 AM - 6:00 PM Eastern Time

Please note: You can check other time zones here.


Welcome, Introduction, Course Preview, Learning Outcomes and the Assessment Method

Introduction to Electrical Power Distribution Systems

  • Canadian Electrical Code
  • Voltage classifications
  • Fundamentals of electrical power distribution system operation

Introduction to Electrical Drawings

  • Standards for electrical controls, international context
  • Standard electrical symbols
  • Single-line diagrams
  • Schematic and wiring diagrams

Grounding and Bonding of Electrical Equipment

  • Equipment Grounding – Bonding
  • Source and distribution of ground currents
  • Grounding Electrodes
  • Substation grounding and concepts for safety

LV and MV System Grounding

  • System Grounding options
  • Arc Flash hazard
  • detection and locating of ground faults
  • Grounding in multiple source systems

Class Discussion of Exercise Examples in System Grounding Applications

Modern Substation Types and Purposes

  • Fundamentals of electrical substation operation
  • Primary unit substations
  • Secondary unit substations
  • Substation circuit arrangement

Power Transformers and Controls

  • Major components
  • Construction and operation
  • Connections and ratings
  • Fixed taps and LTCs

Bus and Disconnect Switches

  • Types and applications
  • Manual and motor-operated switches; control schematics

Power Circuit Breakers

  • Purpose and types
  • Construction and operation
  • Schematics and wiring diagram examples

Metal-Clad Switchgear

  • Advantages and applications
  • Construction and operation
  • Protection and control

Power Supply Systems

  • Battery systems
  • Purpose and ratings
  • Chargers and charging control systems
  • Station power requirements
  • Back-up supplies/sources
  • Source transfer control schemes

Power Conditioning Systems

  • Classification of equipment requiring power conditioning
  • Standby versus uninterruptible power
  • Categories of power conditioners
  • Review of power conditioner types

Power Capacitor and Capacitor Banks

  • Principles of power capacitor application
  • Power capacitor construction and operation
  • Capacitor banks construction and operation
  • Switching and protection control schemes

Substation Commissioning

  • Acceptance of testing equipment
  • Start-up procedures
  • Energizing equipment

Case Study Commissioning of 27 KV Switchgear

Fundamentals of Power System Protective Relaying Systems

  • Power system faults
  • Requirements of protective relaying systems
  • Detection and clearance of power System faults
  • Basic fault calculations
  • Components of protection systems
  • Relay types: electromechanical, electronic and microprocessor-based relays

Instrument Transformers

  • Voltage transformers and current transformers
  • Theory of operation
  • Burden, saturation, and accuracy
  • Application and selection
  • Testing of CTs and VTs

Coordination of Protection Systems

  • Time-current coordination
  • Protective relaying zones
  • Backup protection on radial systems
  • Breaker failure protection on interconnected systems
  • Auto-reclosing of circuit breakers

Protective Relaying Systems

  • Feeder overcurrent protection
  • Bus protection - the fundamental principle of differential protection
  • Transformer protection

Discussion of Problem Set Given as in Class Assignment

Questions and Answers and Feedback to Participants on Achievement of Learning Outcomes
There will be ½ hour open forum questions and answers session at the end of each day. Instructors will include examples of engineering applications in each of their presentations.


Ajit Bapat, P.Eng., M.Eng., MBA

Ajit is well known in the electrical distribution field for his 40 years of expertise in the art and science of ground fault protection.

He holds Master's degrees in business administration and electrical engineering, specializing in power systems and power system protection. He has particular interest in ground fault protection; digital metering systems; microprocessor based integrated systems for protection; and the metering, monitoring, and control of power distribution systems. A member of Professional Engineers Ontario, he is also a senior life member of the IEEE.


Mike Southwood, B.Sc., P.Eng.

Mike has over 35 years of experience in power system protective relaying with the Central Electricity Generating Board in England and Ontario Hydro and is currently chief electrical engineer with Eastern Power Ltd.

Mr. Southwood took early retirement from Ontario Hydro after 25 years of service. He was a Senior Protection & Control Engineer in Cherrywood District, responsible for commissioning and maintaining protective relaying, control and metering schemes on the 500 kV, 230 kV and 44 kV systems. Mr. Southwood is currently a Chief Electrical Engineer with Eastern Power Ltd., a company that designs, builds and operates non-utility generating stations.

He has conducted numerous seminars/courses on power system protection for various industries and universities in major North American cities and for various overseas electrical utilities.

The Engineering Institute of Canada

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Course Rating
4.5 out of 5

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Fee & Credits

$2995 + taxes

  • 3.5 Continuing Education Units (CEUs)
  • 35 Continuing Professional Development Hours (PDHs/CPDs)
  • ECAA Annual Professional Development Points

Group Training
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