Layup (Storage) Best Practices for Steam-Water Touched Equipment

Online /
Sep 21, 2021 /
Course Code: 0907-WEB21

  • Overview
  • Syllabus
  • Instructor


After participating in this course, you will be able to do the following:

  • Understand the critical need to achieve proper layup conditions for stored equipment
  • Improve the long-term reliability (and availability factor) of new plant equipment by focusing on pre-commissioning layup methodology
  • Identify the various methods of layup and the pros and cons of each method
  • Develop an effective plan to layup different types of plant components (boilers, heat-recovery steam generators, superheaters, deaerators, steam turbines, etc.)
  • Evaluate with confidence what chemicals are recommended (and which are not) for layup
  • How to safely return to operation from a specific type of layup
  • Develop a layup Management Program for your plant to extend the life of equipment and reduce maintenance costs

Course Description:

Experience and research have shown that much, if not most, of all corrosion in steam-generating plants occurs during shutdown (or idle) periods while the plant is out of production. Unless adequate precautionary measures are taken, more corrosion damage can occur to a boiler and its auxiliary units during idle periods of storage than during long periods of operation. This corrosion can occur on both waterside and/or fireside surfaces.

Many boiler plants maintain backup capacity that must be immediately ready to supply steam should a mechanical problem occur on the main boilers. The challenge is to protect the integrity of the backup boilers while they are not being used. A significant amount of damage that occurs to boilers during their lifetime can be associated with idle periods and extended downtime. The typical chemical treatment applied during operational times provide protection for boilers from scale and corrosion is often unavailable when the boiler is sitting idle. The consequences of improper layup include both the questionable reliability and availability of the steam-generating plant when operation is resumed, as well as a reduction in the life span of the equipment and a concomitant increase in maintenance costs.

This course focuses on boiler systems of all pressures (and in a variety of industries) and discusses extended wet layup, short term layup, dry layup for very long outages for a wide range of equipment: from deaerators to feedwater heaters, from drainable and non-drainable superheaters to and steam turbines.

It also covers the proper start-up of idle boilers to minimize scale, corrosion and ensure adequate steam purity. The course also teaches how to assess the preferred layup method for a given situation, i.e. evaluation of the key factors that must be considered when selecting the correct type of layup. The various types of corrosion seen in idle boilers and auxiliary systems are discussed along with the appropriate chemical and mechanical treatment options. Several important case studies are reviewed. The course also addresses unique industry needs, such as those of cycling power plants.

The instructor was involved worldwide in dozens of layups of steam generation equipment in many industries, some in very remote areas of Central America and S.E. Asia. The insights gained proved invaluable for later projects in many parts of the world, including the U.S.A. and Canada.

Course Outline:

  • Understand the Corrosion Triangle
  • Learn how botched layups are implicated in many subsequent serious metallurgical failures
  • Learn about the different types of corrosion that are implicated during idle periods
  • Learn about the different types of layup and how to assess the preferred method for a given situation (evaluate the key factors that must be considered when selecting the correct type of layup)
  • Understand the critical importance of pre-commissioning layup
  • The Vital Few – the three key steps of a successful wet layup
  • Learn about the chemistry options of wet layup – the good, the bad, and the ugly
  • Learn how to implement an effective dry layup
  • Discover some unique needs of cycling power plants
  • Learn how to layup a variety of plant equipment – boilers of all sizes, HRSGs, deaerators, superheaters, steam turbines, etc.
  • Evaluate the need for ancillary equipment (dehumidifiers, steam sparging, nitrogen blanketing, etc.)
  • Case studies in industry

Who Should Attend

  • Plant Managers
  • Operation Managers
  • Maintenance Managers
  • Maintenance Engineers
  • Plant Engineers
  • Utility Engineers
  • Technologists
  • Project Managers in the Chemical, Petrochemical, Chemical Processing and other industries
  • Reliability Engineers
  • Stationary Engineers / Plant Operators
  • Risk Management Staff
  • Anyone involved in Plant Asset Management
  • Anyone involved in industrial steam generation systems and steam turbines
More Information

Time: 10:00 AM - 2:30 PM Eastern Time

Please note: You can check other time zones here.

System Requirements

PC-based attendees
OS: Windows 7, 8, 10 or newer

IE 11 or later, Edge 12 or later, Firefox 27 or later, Chrome 30 or later

Macintosh based attendees
OS: Mac OS X with MacOS 10.7 or later

Safari 7+, Firefox 27+, Chrome 30+

OS: iOS 8 or newer

OS: Android 4.0 or higher



  • Why layup? What is the importance of an effective layup?
  • Types of layup (“bottling up”, short-term wet, long-term wet, dry)
    • Advantages and disadvantages of each type
  • The critical step of pre-commissioning layup
  • The three key steps for a successful layup
  • What chemicals to use (and to avoid) in wet layup
  • Unique needs of power plants - challenges posed by cycling plants
  • How to carry an effective DRY layup
  • Layup of Auxiliary equipment (feedwater heaters, deaerators, condensate systems, superheaters, etc.)
  • Layup of steam turbines
  • Steam sparging, nitrogen blanketing
  • Returning to operation from various layup modes
  • Summary of BEST PRACTICES
  • Case study reviews


Luis Carvalho, P.Eng.

Luis is a Chemical Engineer and a Licensed Professional Engineer (Ontario, Canada) and has 35+ years of broad- based industrial water treatment experience in various technical and management positions. He semi-retired on September 1, 2020 and works as Senior Consultant for United Water Consultants (Virginia, USA) on a freelance basis. He held the position of Principal Engineer for 8 years with ChemTreat, a leader in industrial water management, a Richmond, VA (USA) based company where he had responsibilities for technical leadership in high-pressure boiler across a myriad of industries worldwide. He also held the position of Senior Technical Consultant at GE Water & Process Technologies where he worked for 20 years in their Global Technical Group. Prior to that, he was Senior Process Engineer at a large multi-national petrochemical company, and involved at corporate level with industrial water systems across all group refineries, chemical plants and coal mines. Technology knowledge base and experience include high-pressure boiler cycle chemistry, flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC), membrane separations (RO, ultrafiltration), cooling water technology, and other unit operations of industrial water treatment. He has published many technical papers and has been a speaker at many international conferences. He has instructed over 120 multi-day courses over the past 25 years at various organizations, including the Competitive Power College, The International Water Conference, and PowerGen International, as well as several continuing engineering education programs such as EPIC. Luis is widely regarded as an expert in the power industry. He played a very significant role in defining new criteria for steam purity for use in turbines, and introducing changes to decades-long steam purity guidelines. In 2018, he was the Chair of the Technical sub-committee on Air In-leakage in Steam-Water Cycles at the International Association of the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). He was the winner of the Paul Cohen Award in 2006 at the International Water Conference in Pittsburgh, PA.


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Fee & Credits

$395 + taxes

  • 0.4 Continuing Education Units (CEUs)
  • 4 Professional Development Hours (PDHs)
  • ECAA Annual Professional Development Points

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