Mitigating The Risk Of Flow-Accelerated Corrosion

Online /
Jun 10, 2021 /
Course Code: 11-0442-ONL21

  • Overview
  • Syllabus
  • Instructor


Please note, This instructor-led course has specific dates and times:
This course is held online over 1 day on the following schedule (All times in Eastern Time Zone)
10:00 am to 4:30 pm Eastern (Will include the usual breaks and lunch)

After participating in this course, you will be able to do the following:

  • Understand the mechanisms of both types of Flow-accelerated Corrosion (FAC)
  • Diagnose FAC in your system
  • Understand how key parameters control the rate of FAC
  • Identify the type of components and areas of the plant that are most susceptible to FAC
  • Mitigate the risk of FAC in the design and operational phases
  • Discover the impact of cycling and part-load operation on the rate of FAC
  • Understand the advantages and limitations of chemical treatment additives in controlling FAC
  • Learn how to mitigate the risk of FAC


Flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) is regarded as an increasingly common and very insidious type of failure mechanism in steam generation systems across many industries - from power generation to petrochemical. FAC is predominant in Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs) of combined-cycle and cogeneration plants. The proper management of FAC is of paramount importance since fatal injuries to workers have occurred in several power plants, and hundreds of piping and equipment failures have led to production losses and rising maintenance costs.

There are two types of FAC - single-phase and two-phase FAC, quite different in character and root cause. The troubleshooting of FAC can be complex, and distinguishing between the two types is essential to understanding the issues in contention and to the amelioration of the FAC problem. Many key variables play a role in FAC - mainly system hydrodynamics (system geometry, fluid velocity, steam quality, temperature), materials of construction as well as operating practices. Water or cycle chemistry, however, plays a relatively minor role. All of the above complexities have created confusion and conflicting opinions amongst independent power industry players worldwide.

This course presents several case studies together with Best Practice guidelines that are invaluable to owners and current operators of combined cycle/cogeneration plants as well as those involved in all design phases of such projects, through the potential incorporation of these best practices at the earliest possible stage.

Course Outline:

  • FAC Primer
  • How to diagnose FAC in your system (failure morphology and other leading indicators)
  • Distinguish between the two types of FAC (this is a critical step to understanding and controlling FAC)
  • Learn about the areas and components that are susceptible to FAC attack
  • Understand how key parameters control the rate of FAC (temperature, pH, ORP, fluid turbulence, metallurgy, design and operational factors, etc.)
  • Discover the impact of cycling and part-load operation on the rate of FAC
  • Learn about FAC Management Programs
  • Witness several case studies in industry

Who Should Attend

  • Plant Managers
  • Operation Managers
  • Maintenance Managers
  • Plant Engineers
  • Utilities Engineers
  • Technologists
  • Project Managers in the Chemical, Petrochemical, Chemical Processing and other industries
  • Reliability Engineers
  • Operators
  • Risk Management
  • Anyone involved in Plant Asset Management
  • Anyone involved in industrial steam generation systems
More Information

Time: 10:00 AM - 4:30 PM Eastern Time

Please note: You can check other time zones here.



  • Introduction
    • Types of steam generation systems and points of FAC susceptibility
    • Single-phase and Two-phase FAC (proper identification is a critical step)
  • Diagnosis
    • Failure morphology
    • Other leading indicators
  • Key parameters controlling the rate of FAC
    • Temperature, pH, ORP, and others
    • The critical role of fluid turbulence in FAC
    • Metallurgical influences
    • Design factors
    • Operational factors
  • Impact of cycling and part-load operation on the rate of FAC
  • The use of chemical additives to mitigate FAC (e.g., alkalizing and filming amines)
  • The role of a FAC Plant Management Program
  • Detailed case studies
  • Best Practices Summary


Luis Carvalho, P.Eng.

Luis is a Chemical Engineer and a Licensed Professional Engineer (Ontario, Canada) and has 35+ years of broad- based industrial water treatment experience in various technical and management positions. He semi-retired on September 1, 2020 and works as Senior Consultant for United Water Consultants (Virginia, USA) on a freelance basis. He held the position of Principal Engineer for 8 years with ChemTreat, a leader in industrial water management, a Richmond, VA (USA) based company where he had responsibilities for technical leadership in high-pressure boiler across a myriad of industries worldwide. He also held the position of Senior Technical Consultant at GE Water & Process Technologies where he worked for 20 years in their Global Technical Group. Prior to that, he was Senior Process Engineer at a large multi-national petrochemical company, and involved at corporate level with industrial water systems across all group refineries, chemical plants and coal mines. Technology knowledge base and experience include high-pressure boiler cycle chemistry, flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC), membrane separations (RO, ultrafiltration), cooling water technology, and other unit operations of industrial water treatment. He has published many technical papers and has been a speaker at many international conferences. He has instructed over 120 multi-day courses over the past 25 years at various organizations, including the Competitive Power College, The International Water Conference, and PowerGen International, as well as several continuing engineering education programs such as EPIC. Luis is widely regarded as an expert in the power industry. He played a very significant role in defining new criteria for steam purity for use in turbines, and introducing changes to decades-long steam purity guidelines. In 2018, he was the Chair of the Technical sub-committee on Air In-leakage in Steam-Water Cycles at the International Association of the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). He was the winner of the Paul Cohen Award in 2006 at the International Water Conference in Pittsburgh, PA.


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Fee & Credits

$525 + taxes

  • 0.7 Continuing Education Units (CEUs)
  • 7 Professional Development Hours (PDHs)
  • ECAA Annual Professional Development Points

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